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Introducing social media

Page history last edited by PBworks 14 years, 10 months ago

Introducing social media

Leeds City Council training workshop, 2 October 2007


First thoughts: social media and you



"My belief is that ... the axis of communication has swung through 90 degrees - it is not what we say about ourselves that matters but how good we are at influencing the conversation that swirls around us, our products and our services."

Source: Philip Young, University of Sunderland



"Online PR is about engaging people in conversations so they become advocates for your organization."

Source: Tom Watson and Paul Noble, Evaluating Public Relations (2nd edition 2007)



"The use of communication technology is ubiquitous in contemporary public relations practice, and often there's no choice but to adopt the newest communication technology."

Source: The Professional Bond - Public Relations Education and Practice, November 2006


Second thought: avoid technology determinism



"Computing is not about computers any more. It is about living."

Nicholas Negroponte, Being Digital, 1995



How did we get here?



- Electronic media is not new: Reuters, 1850s; BBC Radio, 1920s; BBC TV 1930s

- Have you visited the new Experience TV gallery in Bradford?

- Digital media (ie computer-coded data) is new

- All PR is ePR (ie we use telephones, email); what's new is social media

- Core internet technologies date from 1960s (eg hypertext; ARPAnet)

- World Wide Web dates from 1989-1990, invented by Tim Berners-Lee

- Key technologies: HyperText Tranfer Protocol (HTTP), HyperText Markup Language (HTML)

- Key concept: Google PageRank

- Key text: The Cluetrain Manifesto - 'markets are conversations'

- Latest development: the semantic web (Wikipedia entry)


Towards a definition



> Social media uses the power of social (and computer) networks

> Social media involves some degree of interactivity (eg user comments)

> Social media is frequently created by amateurs (eg citizen journalism)

But note:

> 'Mainstream media' is borrowing all these techniques - see any news report from the BBC



Evolution of the media

Mass media Masses of media Me media
Newspapers, broadcast Digital channels, web Blogs, personal publishing
1870s-1980s 1990s- 2000s-

Source: Richard Bailey


Three phases of the web


1. The age of Surf (eg Yahoo web directory)

2. The age of Search (eg Google)

3. The age of Syndication (eg RSS, Internet Explorer 7)

Source: Scoble and Israel


Two models of web publishing

Web 1.0 Web 2.0
Publishing Participation
Stickiness Syndication
Brochureware Blogs
Content management systems Wikis
Britannica Online Wikipedia
Directories Tagging
Domain name speculation Search engine optimisation
Netscape Google


Source: O'Reilly What is Web 2.0?


Two models of public relations

PR 1.0 PR 2.0
Media relations Stakeholder communications
Press coverage Google search ranking
Awareness Acceptance
Tomorrow's headlines Sustainable success
Product promotion Discussion of issues, trends
Mass targeting Micro targeting
Press clippings analysis Attitudinal research
Persuasion Conversation

Source: Richard Bailey


Concepts and context


Digital natives v digital immigrants

Article by Marc Prensky (part one; part two)


An 18-year old new student / new elector was born in 1989. They were four when the WWW was new and ten when Google was launched. This is their world.


Digital natives Digital immigrants
Grew up with Google Older than the web
Multitasking, hypertext Linear processes
Parallel Sequential
Crave interactivity Prefer to concentrate
Learn through computer games Learn through reading
Twitch-speed Discussion of issues, trends
Graphics before text Text before graphics

Source: Marc Prensky


Push v pull


Push Pull
Newsletter Website content
Website content RSS syndication
News release Word of mouth
Broadcast Narrowcast
Speech Conversation



Open source movement



> Open source software is an alternative to private, proprietary code (eg Firefox v Internet Explorer)

> Wikipedia is an 'open source' encyclopedia

> Open source concepts are now being applied to marketing and democracy



Private v public



> Where is the boundary between work and play (eg Facebook)?

> How can we control what appears in the public domain?

> How can we manage our personal and corporate reputation?


Channels v audiences



> Mass media is a channel rather than an audience

> But what about blogs - individual or media entity?


Social media examples


Category Examples Services
Social networks Bebo; MySpace; Facebook; LinkedIn  
Blogs Comment is free Google blog search; Technorati
Microblogging Twitter  
Photo & video sharing FlickR; YouTube  
Wikis Wikipedia  
Podcasts BBC podcasts Podcast.net
Syndication RSS Google Reader
Virtual reality SecondLife  
Social bookmarking del.ic.ious  


Engaging with social media



> Do you treat social media sites as conventional media?

> Do you use social media for specific campaigns?

> How do you measure results?

> What guidelines do you follow? And who writes them?



Developing a social media strategy



Levels of involvement (90% lurkers, 9% contributors, 1% active users - source: Jakob Nielsen)

Legal issues

People and management

List of actions


Issues for corporate communications


What's the role of PR in the Web 2.0 world?


- Is the traditional press release dead?

- Are the risks to corporate reputation less or greater today?

- CIPR Social Media Guidelines

- Social media news release template, example


Can we control information?


- Could we ever prevent leaks or factory-gate gossip?

- Is the scale of challenge greater given the porosity of online information?

- Is PR about 'command and control' or should it encourage conversations on issues?


What does Web 2.0 mean for newspapers?


- Advertising is migrating to the web (eg Craigslist)

- Google is now a media company, but with no journalists (eg Google News)

- Print is not enough: Guardian now has blogs, audio posts, podcasts, video: in a word mashups

- What does the decline in print journalism mean for PR?


Does blogger relations replace media relations?


- Yes, if blogs have reach and credibility with target audience

- Otherwise, new media complements - but doesn't replace - old media (think radio, TV, internet)

- Blogger relations complements media relations (as does eg analyst relations)

- See Tom Murphy's PR hype cycle

- State of the live web / blogosphere (April 2007)


Should the chief executive blog?


- Rare example of a good CEO blog: Sun's Jonathan Schwartz

- Warning from Seth Godin: Beware the CEO blog

- Advice from Debbie Weil: What should the CEO blog about, and why

- Advice from Antony Mayfield: Should your CEO blog? That depends on them

- Boyd Neil, Hill & Knowlton: Should senior executives blog?

- Why CEOs should learn to love the blog The Guardian, 17 November 2006


Should we prevent employees from blogging and using social media?


- Stop blocking campaign

- There should be guidelines on blogging where the company is named and blogs are part of its PR strategy:

- Yahoo! employee blog guidelines

- IBM blogging policy and guidelines (pdf file)

- Edelman Managing employee bloggers (pdf file)


Should our blogging be transparent?


- When blogs put brands at risk, Financial Times, 8 November 2006

- Buzz off! this blogger's voice is not for sale Media Guardian, 20 November 2006

- Anti-astroturfing campaign

- Edelman, Wal-Mart flogging campaign

- WOMMA code of ethics


Should we police our Wikipedia entry?


- How clean is an 'open source' encyclopedia?

- Self-penned entry (eg Tim Mackintosh-Smith)

- What about protecting your reputation? Leeds City Council

- Wikipedia's five pillars (including 'neutral point of view')


What tools are needed for PR 2.0?


- All traditional skills (eg research, writing, networking, media relations), plus:

- Social media knowledge (eg Digg; del.icio.us; Flickr)

- New research tools (eg Technorati; Google News; Google blog search)

- New information gathering tools (eg Google reader or Internet Explorer 7)

- Search engine optimisation awareness: Blogging your way to the top of the search engines

- Some social networking experience (if you can't do it for yourself...) Go on, edit this page!



Bailey, R New media sources on PR Books

Pavlik, J (2007) Mapping the Consequences of Technology on Public Relations Institute for Public Relations, USA

Phillips, D ePR lectures

Social Media Resource - by The Friendly Ghost

Inferno blogging survey

Social Media white paper pdf format

What is social media? e-book from Spannerworks


Thank you for listening (and participating)


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